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Chronology of Ancient History of Cultural Diversity in India


Dated History of Ancient History of Cultural Diversity in India: 3228 BC to 1947.

The Ancient History of Cultural Diversity in India can be studied in a chronological order dated from 3228 BC to 1947 when India gained Independence from the British rule.


3228 Descension of Bhagwan Krishna
3139 The Mahabharat War
Start of Brihadrath dynasty of Magadha
Start of Yudhisthir dynasty of Hastinapur
3102 Ascension of Bhagwan Krishna
Start of kali yuga
2139 End of Brihadrath dynasty
2139-2001 Pradyot dynasty
2001-1641 Shishunag dynasty
1894-1814 Gautam Buddha
1641-1541 Nandas
1541-1241 Maurya dynasty
1541-1507 Chandragupta Maurya
1507-1479 Bindusar
1479-1443 Ashokvardhan
1241-784 Shung and Kanau dynasty
784-328 Andhra dynasty
509-477 Jagadguru Shankaracharya
328-83 Gupta dynasty
328-321 Chandragupt Vijayaditya
326 Alexander’s invasion
321-270 Samudragupt Ashokaditya Priyadarshini, or Ashok the Great
102BC-15AD Vikramaditya established Vikram era in 57 BC


Ancient Indian Civilization



25-85 Shalivahan established Shalivahan Shak era in 78 AD
85-1192 There were several kingdoms of Rajpoot kings all over India. They ruled for 1,107 years.
1192-1757 In 1192, Mohammad Gori invaded Delhi (Hastinapur) the second time, defeated and killed Prithviraj Chauhan, and became the king. Since then several dynasties of Muslims ruled India for 565 years.
1757-1947 In 1757 English regime was established in Bengal. British ruled India for 190 years.
1947 India got Independence

Important Periods of Ancient History of Cultural Diversity in India

3228 BC – Descension of Bhagwan Krishna

According to the “Surya Siddhanta,” the astrologers have calculated that Kali yuga started on the afternoon of 17th February, 3102 BC. In the Bhagwatam, Brahma tells in round figures that Krishna remained on this earth planet for 125 years


Accordingly, if 125 years is added to February, 3102, it comes to February 3227 BC. But Krishna’s dissension was in the Rohini nakcÝhatra (asterism) of the 8th waning moon midnight of Bhadon (August) which is about seven months earlier. Thus, His descensions date is 3228 BC and He stayed on the earth planet for 125 years and about 7 months.


 3139 BC – The Mahabharat War from Ancient History of Cultural Diversity in India

The Pandavas, after winning the Mahabharat war, ruled for 36 years and 8 months until the start of Kali Yuga in 3102 BC. Accordingly, the date of Mahabharat war comes to 3139 BC.

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3102 BC – Beginning of Kaliyug from Ancient History of Cultural Diversity in India

The famous Aihole inscription of glorious Chalulaya King Pulkeshi II of the 7th century says,


It means, “3,735 (30 + 3,000 + 700 + 5) years have already elapsed in Kali Yug, after the Mahabharat war, and 556 (50 + 6 + 500) years of Shalivahan era is running (on this date of engraving this inscription).” The inscription says that 3,735 years of kali yuga had already elapsed. It means the 3,736th year of Kali era was running in the Shak era 556 AD which was 556 + 78 = 634 AD. Thus, deducting 634 from 3,736 comes to 3102 BC. (For more evidence read Mahabharat – 3139 BC).


3139–83 BC – The Magadh Dynasties from Ancient History of Cultural Diversity in India

The authority of the Bhagwatam is taken to determine the dates of the dynasties of the kings of Magadh up to the Andhra dynasty. There were nine dynasties that ruled Magadha after the Mahabharat war (3139 BC). They were: 21 kings in Brihadrath dynasty (1,000 years), 5 in Pradyot (138 years), 10 in Shishunag (360 years), one King Mahapadm Nand along with his 8 sons (100 years), 10 Maurya (137 years), 10 Shung and 4 Kanva (457 years), and 30 kings of Andhra dynasty for 456 years (Bhagwatam 9/22/46-49, 12/1/1-28). The ninth one is Gupta dynasty. There were seven kings in the Gupta dynasty with a total reigning period of 245 years (Kaliyug Rajvrittant, Bhavishyottar Puran).


The reigning period of 10 Maurya kings, shown only for 137 years, appears to be much less as compared to the reigning period of the other kings of Magadha. Apart from the Mauryas, 81 kings in the other seven dynasties ruled for 2,511 years which give an average of 31 years per king. It appears to be a copying mistake while writing the period of Maurya dynasty. Probably, instead of 317, it was mistakenly written as 137 because the Kaliyug Rajvrittant gives the figure of 316 years for 10 Maurya kings. However, 300 years in round figures for the Maurya dynasty has been taken.


1894–1814 BC – Gautam Buddh from Ancient History of Cultural Diversity in India

According to the Buddhist records, Gautam Buddha was already 72 years old at the time of Ajatshatnu’s coronation; it means that he was in his 73rd year at that time. Shishunag dynasty’s period is 2001 BC to 1641 BC. The first five kings of Shishunag dynasty, Shishunag to Bindusar, ruled for (40+36+26+40+38) 180 years. Then Ajatshatnu became the king and ruled for 27 years. Accordingly, 2001 BC (-) 180 = 1821 BC is the coronation year of Ajatshatnu. Adding 73 years (the existing age of Gautam Buddha at that time) to 1821 BC comes to 1894 BC. Thus, the date of birth of Gautam Buddha is 1894 BC and his Nirvana year is (1894-80) 1814 BC. He was born on Vaishakh full moon day which is March/April.


1541–1507 BC – Chandragupta Maurya from Ancient History of Cultural Diversity in India

Magadh was the fourth dynasty after the Mahabharat war (3139 BC). Chandragupta Maurya was the first king of the Maurya dynasty. His mother’s name was the Mur, so he was called Maurya in Sanskrit which means the son of Mur, and thus, his dynasty was called Maurya dynasty. A pious learned and determined Brahman, Chanakya, also known as Kautilya, who didn’t have a pleasant appearance but had an intelligent brain, managed to terminate the existing King Mahapadm Nand and his eight sons and made Chandragupta the King of Magadh who was also the legitimate heir to the throne. The total period of the four dynasties including the Nand dynasty after the Mahabharat war is 1,598 years (1,000 + 138 + 360 + 100). Thus, the coronation date of Chandragupta Maurya comes to 3139 – 1598 = 1541 BC. Chandragupta Maurya ruled for 34 years (1541-1507 BC), his son Bindusar ruled 28 years (1507-1479 BC) and his grandson Ashokvardhan ruled for 36 years (1479-1443 BC).


509–477 BC – Jagadguru Shankaracharya from Ancient History of Cultural Diversity in India

The most efficient documentary evidence of Shankaracharya’s period is the carefully preserved date-wise list of all the succeeding Shankaracharyas who sat on that religious throne which was established by Adi (the original) Shankaracharya thousands of years ago, and that list goes back up to 477 BC. Adi Shankaracharya lived only 32 years so his birth date is 477 + 32 = 509 BC. He had established four maths. (Math is a religious throne, which is used as a center for propagating Dharma, and whoever sits on that throne, holds the title of Shankaracharya.) In his last days, Adi Shankaracharya lived in Kanchi Kamkoti so it is also considered as a math. Dwarka Sharda Math and Kanchi Kamkoti Math both have the complete date-wise record of all the succeeding Shankaracharyas for the last 2,500 years, but the records of Kanchi Math are more detailed.


Shankaracharya, after establishing the four maths and spreading the greatness of Sanatan Dharm, came back to South India and, for the last four to six years of his life, he lived in Kanchi Kamkoti. Thus, Kanchi Kamkoti is also called the fifth math. Thus, according to the records of Kanchi Kamkoti Math, Adi Shankaracharya was born in 2593 Kali era and left this earth planet on 2625 Kali era which comes to (3102 – 2593) 509 BC and (3102 – 2625) 477 BC.


328–83 BC – Gupta Dynasty from Ancient History of Cultural Diversity in India

The Gupta dynasty was the ninth Magadha dynasty. There were seven kings in the Gupta dynasty: (1) Chandragupta Vijayaditya (ruling period 7 years), (2) Samudragupt Ashokaditya Priyadarshini or Ashok the Great (51 years), (3) Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (36 years), (4) Kumargupt Mahendraditya (42 years), (5) Skandgupt Parakramaditya (25 years), (6) Nrasinghgupt Baladitya (40 years) and (7) Kumargupt II Vikramaditya (44 years). The total reigning period was 245 years. After the downfall of Gupta dynasty, the kingship of Magadh ended and it went under the subordination of Vikramaditya of Ujjain (Malva).


102 BC–15 AD – Vikramaditya and Start of Vikram era in 57 BC

Vikram era started in 57 BC by Vikramaditya the Great as a commemoration of his victory upon the Shaks. There is plentiful literature on Vikramaditya, and in the Bhavishya Puran itself, there are descriptions of Vikramaditya in more than 40 chapters between Pratisarg Parv I and IV. Pratisarg Parv IV, chapter 1 of Bhavishya Puran says that after the elapse of a full 3,000 years in Kali Yug (3102 – 3000 = 102 BC), a dynamic Divine personality was born who was named Vikramaditya. Bhavishya Puran further says that the great King Vikramaditya ruled for one hundred years. When he was only five years old he went into the jungles to worship God. After twelve years, when he came out, God Shiv sent for him a celestial golden throne which was decorated with thirty-two statues. According to the above descriptions, Vikramaditya lived for (5 years + 12 years + 100 years) 117 years (102 BC – 15 AD).


Kalidas, the greatest poet, writer and the literary figure of his time, living a pious life and sincerely devoted to his scholarly work, was one of the nine gems of King Vikram’s court. The “Jyotirvidabharnam” by Kalidas tells in its first chapter that Vikram era started at the elapse of (Agni 3, Ambar 0, Yug 4 and Ved 4 = 3,0,4,4) 3,044 years of kali yug. Thus, the 3,045th year of Kali Yuga was the beginning of Vikram era which is 57 BC. At the end of Jyotirvidabharnam, Mahakavi Kalidas mentions the exact date of his writing and says that in the Kali era 3067 he had started to write this book. It means, he wrote that book when 3,067 years of kali yuga had passed. That comes to 35 BC (3102 – 3067 = 35), which is the beginning of Vikram era.

Thus, Vikramaditya was born in 102 BC (3102-3000), established his ‘era’ in 57 BC and left this earth planet in 15 AD.


25–85 AD Shalivahan and Start of Shalivahan Shak era in 78 AD

Detail of the kings of Parmar dynasty up to King Bhojraj as given in the Bhavishya Puran (Pratisarg Parv IV chapter one) states Vikramaditya, son of Gandharv Sen, reigned up to 15 AD. Vikramaditya’s son Deobhakt ruled from 15-25 AD and his grandson, Shalivahan, ruled from 25-85 AD. Shalivahan established his era in 78 AD. It is called the Shalivahan Shak era.

This suffices, in brief, the chronology of Ancient Indian Civilization and Culture.

Reference: Wikipedia.

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